Our today topic is on Yahya Khan.We will share the biography of Yahya Khan.Agha Muhammad Yahya Khan, born on February 4 , 1917in Chakwal and died on August 10 , 1980is a Pakistani statesman , who was president of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan of March 25 , 1969 the December 20 , 1971.
After being chief general of the Pakistani army, he was the appointed successor to General Muhammad Ayub Khan as part of the then military dictatorship in Pakistan .
Yahya Khan was born on February 4, 1917 in Chakwal , near Peshawar , in British India (now Pakistan). His family belongs to the people Pashtun and down the class of elite soldiers of Nadir Shah , the Persian king who invaded the India and made Delhi the 18th century. His father, Saadat Ali Khan, was from Peshawar and held the position of police officer .
From an affluent background, Yahya Khan studied at Punjab University , Lahore , and then returned to the Dehradun Indian Military Academy, where he became one of the first graduates of his level. When he left in 1938, he was drafted into the army British. During World War II he served as an officer in the 4th Infantry Division on various theaters of , particularly in Iraq , in North Africa and in Italy. Captured in June 1942, however, managed to escape from a camp after three attempts.
Biography Of Yahya Khan
After the partition of the Raj britannique and the independence of Pakistan in 1947, Yahya Khan became an officer in the army of the new state; he played an important role in the training of the troops, especially in the formation of the Staff College at Quetta . In 1951, he was promoted to brigadier general and commanded the 106 th Infantry Brigade in Kashmir from 1951 to 1952 4 . He also directed between 1954 and 1957 a modernization project of the Pakistani army initiated by the commander-general Muhammad Ayub Khan, before being promoted himself General and Head of Instruction .
On October 27, 1958, Yahya Khan was appointed Prime Minister by President Iskander Mirza , but the same day, Ayub Khan overthrew Mirza and sent him into exile. However, Yahya Khan did not protest and supported the action of Ayub Khan .
Close to the new president, Yahya Khan held since the position of Chief of General Staff, and until 1962 . In 1965, during the Second Indo-Pakistan War , Yahya Khan was given command of an infantry division in East Pakistan and Kashmir . In March of the following year, he was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces, with the mission of using all means necessary to improve the efficiency of the Pakistani troops. Indeed, the weaknesses of the latter had been revealed during the conflict with India. In this context, Yahya Khan proceeded to several reforms in the army: he improved and strengthened its structure, created three infantry divisions, procured new weapons and reorganized the military command . In addition, he resumed from September 1966 the position of Chief of Staff, which he was to retain until 1971
President of the Islamic Republic
On March 25, 1969, President Muhammad Ayub Khan resigned from office following a strong popular discontent and handed power over to Yahya Khan. Immediately after his accession to power, the latter imposed martial law in the country, repealed the constitution and dissolved the national and provincial assemblies . On March 31, it officially became President of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan .
Unlike other military leaders in Pakistan, Yahya Khan did not want to take a long-term hold on power and quickly expressed his desire to restore democracy in Pakistan. He also promised to address the issue of ethnic rivalry between the eastern part (future Bangladesh ) and the western part of the country. With these objectives in mind, he increased the number of East Pakistani representatives in the National Assembly and promulgated on March 29, 1970 a provisional constitution which enumerated the conditions for future parliamentary elections. They took place on 7 December of the same year and the first popular elections in the history of modern Pakistan .
However, these elections did not have the hoped-for result: rather than taking a first step towards the democratization of the country, they augured above all the fall of Yahya Khan . Indeed, it does not erase the antagonism between East and West, already strengthened by the cyclone in November 1970 in Bengal which had hundreds of thousands of victims and the impotence of the Pakistani army to disaster relief . The Awami League , led by Sheikh Mujibur Rahman , won 160 of the 162 East-Pakistan seats in the National Assembly, out of a total of 313 seats, but did not win any West-Pakistan seats. Conversely, the Pakistan People’s Partyled by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto , won 81 West Pakistani seats and no East Pakistani seat. Thus, the Awami League had the numerical majority in the Assembly. In spite of this, Yahya Khan knew that Bhutto would not have tolerated Rahman becoming Prime Minister and finally entrusted this function to the leader of the PPP .
This decision provoked the anger of the East Pakistanis and was followed by violent protests. In response, February 21, 1971, Yahya Khan adjourned the session of the National Assembly and dissolut his civilian cabinet . On the night of 25 March, he arrested and Rahman launched the military operation Searchlight against Pakistan Oriental 5 . Very bloody, the military repression made hundreds of thousands of victims . Thus was unleashed the liberation war of Bangladesh , which lasted for nine months; December 3rd, the intervention of Indiain the conflict and the Pakistani defeat forced Pakistan to recognize the independence of Bangladesh thirteen days later. Shortly after, on December 20, growing popular discontent forced Yahya Khan to resign from office. He was then replaced by Bhutto, who put him under house arrest in 1972 (until 1979). Yahya Khan died on 10 August 1980 in Rawalpindi.