Biography Of Muhammad Ayub Khan

Our today topic is biography of Muhammad Ayub Khan.We will share the biography of Muhammad Ayub Khan.Muhammad Ayub Khan , born May 14 , 1907in Haripur and died on April 19 , 1974 in Rawalpindi , is a Pakistani military and statesman . General in chief of the Pakistani army in 1951, he seized power and imposed a military dictatorship after theOctober 8, 1958President Iskander Mirza repealed the constitution and proclaimed martial law. Muhammad Ayub Khan was President of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan fromOctober 27, 1958 the March 25, 1969 and is one of the top three military leaders in the country.

Originally from Pashtun and born to a rural family in Haripur district , Muhammad Ayub Khan received military training and then joined the British Indian Army in 1929 before joining the Pakistani Army in 1947, during the creation of the country. He progressed rapidly in the military hierarchy, until becoming the first Pakistani to lead the armed forces of the young nation in 1951. After being appointed Minister of Defense in 1954, he co-authored a coup d’etat. State against the civilian government theOctober 8, 1958 with the help of President Mirza, whom he overthrows and then quickly replaces.Muhammad Ayub Khan

Leading the country for ten years in an authoritarian way, Ayub Khan established a new constitution and began important economic and social reforms. He leads a policy mixing economic liberalism , distribution of certain wealth, secular reforms and references to Islam . At first popular, his power weakened gradually after the Second Indo-Pakistani War of 1965. He resigned on March 25, 1969 as a result of extensive protest movements. His political legacy is controversial, being the first major Pakistani military leader to perpetrate a coup imply as a coup, marking the beginning of recurring conflicts between civilian and military powers in the country.

Biography Of Muhammad Ayub Khan

Youth and Privacy

Muhammad Ayub Khan was born on May 14, 1907in Rehana, a village in Haripur District, then in the North-West Frontier Province , in the British Raj 1 , 2 . It belongs to the Pashto tribe Tarin 3 , located in the east of the province in the region called “Hazara” 4 . Ayub Khan is the first child of the second wife of Mir Dad Khan, a former officer of a cavalry regiment of the British Indian Army . Because of his family, he is fluent in Pashto and the local Hindko dialect , in addition to English and Urdu., the two official languages ​​of Pakistan 5 .

Ayub Khan begins his education in the village of Haripur Sarai Saleh district, located more than six kilometers from his village. He then regularly makes trips on mule back . He then goes to school in the local capital Haripur , settling in his grandmother’s house. In 1922, he passed his end of secondary study and then joined the Muslim university of Aligarh . After four years of study, he left India before obtaining his bachelor to integrate the Sandhurst Royal Military Academy in England 1 .

Ayub Khan is married to Zaidi Khatoon and had four son and two daughters 6 . The oldest, Gohar Ayub Khan , was born in 1937 and became in 1990 president of the National Assembly and Foreign Minister 7 . His daughter Nasim married in 1955 with Miangul Aurangzeb , the last crown prince of Swat 8 , 9 . His grand-son Omar Ayub Khan , born in 1970, was briefly minister and deputy during the 2010s.

Biography Of Muhammad Ayub Khan

Military career
Ascension (1928-1949)

Muhammad Ayub Khan began his military career in the British Indian army being appointed to the rank of lieutenant after his training at the Royal Military College at Sandhurst . TheFebruary 2, 1928It starts at the age of twenty-one-year compulsory military service in the first battalion of the fourteenth regiment of Punjab 12 . TheApril 10, 1929he is integrated into the same battalion before joining the fifth regiment of Punjab 13 . He was then promoted to the rank of Lieutenant onMay 2, 193014 and then to the rank of CaptainFebruary 2, 193715 .

During the Second World War , theMay 19, 1941, Ayub Khan is elevated to Major 16 . He was promoted to lieutenant-colonel the following year and joined the Burmese front . In 1945, he was promoted to colonel and commander of his regiment during the Burma Campaign 17 . He was, however, temporarily suspended during this campaign for “cowardice” 18 .Muhammad Ayub Khan

At the end of the war, he returned to the British Raj in his hometown, North-West Frontier Province , where he was promoted to the rank of Brigadier First Star and served in Waziristan . He is then the most senior Muslim officer of the British Indian Army . During the partition of India , Ayub Khan is in charge of assisting British General Thomas Wynford Rees in the Punjab Border Forces, a military unit created specifically to deal with community violence in the province. He was later accused of laxity face these confrontations b 1 . After the creation of Pakistan the August 14, 1947, Ayub Khan chooses to join the new country 1 . Here again, he rose rapidly: in 1948, he obtained the rank of major-general and served in East Pakistan by being responsible for a whole division. He will receive the military decoration Hilal-e-Jurat . In 1949, promoted to Adjutant-General , he was posted to the headquarters of the Pakistani Army at Rawalpindi , and in the same year became Vice-Commander-in-Chief, that is, subordinate to the Chief of the Army. Douglas Gracey , the country’s highest military function 19 .

Biography Of Muhammad Ayub Khan

Chief of the Army (1951-1954)
In the run-up to his withdrawal, Pakistani army chief Douglas Gracey leaves recommendations to Prime Minister Liaqat Ali Khan . Some of the names proposed to replace him include Iftikhar Khan , who died in a plane crash onDecember 13, 194920 . Muhammed Akbar Khan is also a favorite, as he is one of the oldest 21 . Yet it is Ayub Khan who is appointed commander-in-chiefJanuary 16, 1951by the Prime Minister. It is the highest military post in the country and is the first Pakistani to occupy it, ending the transition period led by British officers. It was ultimately chosen because it was seen as the most loyal to the civilian government and the less ambitious 19 .

In a Cold War context where Pakistan hesitates between an alliance with the USSR or the United States , Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan is assassinated onOctober 16, 1951shortly after a strategic meeting he had held with Ayub Khan and Foreign Minister Zafarullah Khan , about cooperation with the Americans. In the early fall of 1953 , Ayub Khan visited the US administration on his own, shortly before an official meeting with the civilian government. The general would have made a good impression on Secretary of State John Foster Dulles . The two men discuss such a strong strategic alliance between their respective countries 22 . During this period, the relations between the civil power and the military power deteriorate seriously, especially following the first Indo-Pakistani war.during which the Pakistani generals criticize the lack of support from the government. It is in this context that Governor General Malik Ghulam Muhammad proposes to Ayub Khan to seize power by overthrowing the government. However, the military leader refuses but then accepts Ghulam’s offer to enter politics

Minister of Defense (1954-1958)
The October 24, 1954Ayub Khan becomes Minister of Defense while retaining his position as Army Chief. He was appointed to the government led by Muhammad Ali Bogra 1 with the support of Governor General Malik Ghulam Muhammad . During this period, Ayub Khan’s political role increased dramatically as he became known to five different prime ministers in four years. Ayub Khan later commented that his two main objectives in the government were to “protect the military from political interference” and to unite West Pakistan into one province. This second objective is seen as a way of combating the influence of East Pakistan 1. Ayub Khan will also contribute to bringing his country with the United States , including negotiating membership in the Baghdad Pact and the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization 1 .

Biography Of Muhammad Ayub Khan

Paradoxically, Ayub Khan would have been in his youth favorable to the separation of military and civil powers. However, the exercise of power will change his beliefs while he considers the politicians he rubs shoulders as ineffective. In particular, he describes in his diary the various heads of government with whom he worked as defense minister, “fools”, “impetuous” or lacking “skill and courage”. He entered including conflict with Prime Minister Feroz Khan Noon on the logistics of the army and the expansion of its position c 2 , awarded twice by President Mirza between 1954 and 1958 c 1 . Ayub Khan then approaches the ex-military Iskander Mirza, Successor to Ghulam gubernatorial general before becoming president , the newly created position by the 1956 Constitution to the researcher Christophe Jaffrelot, the two men will join “to displace civilian power”Muhammad Ayub Khan

President of the Republic
Coup

On the night of the 7thOctober 8, 1958President Iskander Mirza overthrows the government of Feroz Khan Noon , announces the introduction of martial law and repeals the 1956 Constitution , with the support of Army Chief Ayub Khan. The latter is then named “Director-in-Chief of Martial Law” 1 . To do this, the military leader has in fact supported by his superiors, including regional managers 2 . However, the two men are very quickly in conflict over the sharing of power. President Mirza tries to keep the reality of decisions but Ayub Khan with the support of the army, the balance of power is reversed quickly. TheOctober 24Mirza appoints Ayub Khan prime minister and tries to establish a new military leadership that is more favorable to him. However, the generals remain loyal to their leader and, fromOctober 27Mirza was arrested by the army and Ayub Khan replaced the next day as President of the Republic 23 .

The coup in two occurs without any violence and Ayub Khan enjoys the support of the army, of part of the administration and even the population, exhausted by political instability and corruption 1 . There is a certain continuity of power between the two men, Ayub Khan retaining the same martial law and the government of his predecessor, which excludes politicians and is composed of half military and half civilians. The coup finally marks the advent of the Pakistan Army , after years of intensive development to face confrontation with India 3 . With the stated purpose of fighting corruption,600 former deputies, nearly 2,000 civil servants and banned political parties.

Biography Of Muhammad Ayub Khan

Presidentialization and Legal Reforms

On the occasion of the first anniversary of his takeover, Ayub Khan issued a ” Basic Democracy Order (1959 )” aimed at giving his regime a democratic legitimacy. The legal act puts in place the election of 80,000 representatives to vote in a plebiscite on Ayub Khan’s person. The question asked states that in the event of a positive response, Ayub Khan will be considered elected president and will be allowed to write the new constitution. About 95% of the electors will confirm the president at the poll held onFebruary 14, 196024 . The constitution is introduced in 1961 and comes into force the following year, officially ending martial law onJune 8, 1962a 5 . It sets up a presidential political regime, partly inspired by the American system. However, the electoral system remains indirect, with the 80,000 electoral college electing both the president and the deputies of the National Assembly . In the same way, the electors are under pressure from the government and their freedom of action is in fact limited b 2 , the power having for example threatened rural representatives to be deprived of water for irrigation land has 6 .Muhammad Ayub Khan

Apart from the constitutional plan, Ayub Khan initiated other emblematic reforms. Although the new constitution establishes an Islamic republic and enunciates respect for Muslim principles, the president puts in place legislative reforms, some of which run counter to certain traditions. The order ofMarch 2, 1961thus provides for polygamy to be framed, in particular by the need for the woman’s agreement 25 . In 1963, two Presidential Orders introduce censorship of the press, the government is allowed to take control media incentives to “hate” towards the government or threatening national unity 5 . The authority is also setting up a land reform that limits the possessions of the great feudal landowners about 400 hectares and redistributes certain lands b 2. This is a semi-success: ten years later, about 20% of the land was redistributed to independent peasants. The latter will be the main supporters of the regime among rural electors at 7 . However, the effects of the reform have been limited by multiple derogations. Similarly, many large landowners have shared their land in the family circle so as not to exceed the authorized ceilings.

Economic Policy
The economic policy applied by Ayub Khan is mainly liberal and capitalist , despite some intervention by the state . The government is trying to attract foreign investment by putting in place pro-business measures and privatizing large sectors of the economy 1 , c 3 . Ayub Khan is also implementing state economic planning and is leading the commission to implement it in 1961 to 9 . In 1959, it introduced a voucher system for investors ( Export Bonus Vouchers Scheme ) and managed to increase exports, especially to the West 26. In addition, Pakistan benefits from US financial aid, which helps the government invest in school and training. Thus, the early 1960s is a time of very rapid growth for the country, a record in its history, even surpassing India at this time. Between 1960 and 1965 the average annual growth was 11.5% of GDP and the industry rapidly grows to 9 , especially the military industry c 3 . The country was then cited for those developing b 3 .

Biography Of Muhammad Ayub Khan

However, the economy fell sharply after the 1965 war , driving investment away and reducing international aid. The investments under the plan 1965-1970 Five Year quickly diverted to the military and many development projects are abandoned, especially those aimed at reducing the disparity between West Pakistan and East Pakistan , the latter having been long neglected b 4 . Similarly, strong economic development has failed to reduce huge social inequalities. Despite the land reform, the so-called ” 22 families Muhammad Ayub Khan” owned in 1968 two-thirds of the industry and 87% of the financial institutions had 9, b 5 . In addition, the fight against corruption is also considered a failure b 4 , military officers having for example grabbed the redistributed land.

Military policy and internal
Upon taking office, October 27, 1958Ayub Khan names Muhammad Musa as army chief to replace him. At first, power reduces somewhat the country’s preponderant military budget in order to develop the economy. However, as early as 1963, the military budget began to increase sharply and even more from the war of 1965 to 10 . Thus, the power of Ayub Khan will symbolize the rise of the army in all spheres of Pakistani public life, which will gradually improve the political and economic situation of the Punjabi elite which is pre-eminent within the country. army at the expense of Muhadjirs whose intellectual elite had influenced the creation of the country ‘s 11. The strength of the army rose from 250,000 in 1960 to 390,000 in 1969 to 12 . Similarly, the share of GDP devoted to the military budget increased from 4.66% in 1962 to 7.48% in 1969 to 10 and the country is equipped with Western technology. The navy is highly developed thanks to the acquisition of destroyers and especially American submarines ( Tench class ) then French ( Daphne class ) 27 .

It is also under the power of Ayub Khan that the obtaining of a nuclear weapon begins to garner supporters among the military. His foreign minister Bhutto pushes for this, but Ayub Khan is reluctant to this idea. It favors instead the development of civil nuclear power with the central KANUPP which will be inaugurated in 1972 in Karachi 28 . The space program was created in 1961 with the creation of the Research Commission on Space and the Upper Atmosphere (SUPARCO), thanks in particular to the influence of Abdus Salam 29 . Ayub Khan also decides the construction of a new capital the same year: named ” Islamabad “, it s’new city just north of the military capital Rawalpindi . It is made official in the constitution of 1962 as seat of the executive institutions b 6 .

Biography Of Muhammad Ayub Khan

In the summer of 1965 , in the context of anti-Indian protests in Kashmir , the president and the army chief designed a secret plan to reclaim the disputed region. Little coverage in the military hierarchy, the project aims to infiltrate Pakistani soldiers in the Indian part of Kashmir to support a revolt of the predominantly Muslim population b 7 . Launched at the beginning of August, the “Gibraltar” operation is however a bitter failure: the population does not follow the movement and the Indian army reacts quickly to 13. Two months of confrontation ensued during which the Muhammad Ayub KhanPakistani and Indian armies suffered each success and failure. Faced with the pressures of major Soviet and American powers, both sides end up a cease-fire providing a return to previous boundaries b 8 . The responsibility of Ayub Khan in the military failure is then denounced by his opponents and demonstrations erupt, including led by students. The Tashkent Declaration is seen as a betrayal and an unjustified renunciation by his opponents, while the public thought the Pakistani army in a strong position in the field i

Election of 1965
In 1962, thanks to the end of martial law, Ayub Khan again authorized political parties, particularly because of disputes from East Pakistan . The Muslim League of Pakistan then splits in two: the “convention” that supports Ayub Khan, and the “council” which opposes it by later joining the United Democratic Front led by Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy at 13 . In 1964, Ayub Khan announced the convening of a presidential election at the end of his mandate granted by plebiscite in 1960. However, most of the opponents were banned from voting and eventually joined Fatima Jinnah , a sister. father of the nation b 3. With the slogan “democracy against dictatorship”, Fatima is gathering large crowds and its campaign is considered a success. However, theJanuary 2, 1965Nearly 64 percent of the 80,000 voters vote for Ayub Khan 30 even though Fatima scores well in major cities, including Dacca and Chittagong in East Pakistan, where contestation is growing, and even in Karachi at 13 . The honesty of the ballot was, however, questioned by the opposition, in particular because of the influence of the power on the electors.

Foreign Policy
True to his position as Minister of Defense, Ayub Khan led a strong and strategic alliance with the United States . The Pakistani government has sought to obtain financial aid, including military aid to face India c 2 . Ayub Khan proposed that the Pakistani army could in return help the United States fight against the spread of communism , convincing them that a takeover by the left was possible in Pakistan. Cooperation between the two countries is intense. Three Pakistani air bases are then rented to Americans b 9 , including a secret base near Peshawar at the CIA. The latter will also be subject to threats of bombing by the Soviet Union following the U-2 incident that was stationed there in 1960 to 15 . Ayub Khan met several US presidents as he is in power, including John F. Kennedy in 1961 and Lyndon B. Johnson in 1967. He also has repeatedly expressed its opposition to the USSR 32 .Muhammad Ayub Khan

Biography Of Muhammad Ayub Khan

However, after the war against India in 1965 , relations with the United States deteriorated, especially as the US administration tried to improve relations with the enemy of Pakistan. Ayub Khan will then try to establish relations with China and the Soviet Union, without questioning the strategic partnership with the United States. Similarly Zulfikar Ali Bhutto , who served as Foreign Minister from 1963 to 1966, was known to be closer to the Soviet Union. The major confrontations during the Sino-Indian war in 1962 gave Pakistan the opportunity to establish a strategic partnership with China to counterbalance Indian influence and its position on Kashmir. China also has very welcomed this partnership, anxious to avoid its isolation after the pro-Western alliance of the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization , of which Pakistan is precisely member b 9 . The two countries establish trade agreements, resolve their border dispute by a treaty in 1963 and undertake the construction of the road Karakorum to connect c 5 . The United States is pressuring Pakistan as a result of these new directions and cuts back aid to the country, but without ever ending the strategic alliance, given their common interests in limiting communist influence in the region

Disputes and end of power
President Ayub Khan’s unpopularity and protests against his regime grew in the second half of the 1960s , especially after the Pakistani military defeat of 1965 . The protest is being carried out by the former political class, student and left-wing workers’ movements and more particularly by the Bengalis in East Pakistan . In 1967, the country went through a railway strike, which led to a student movement. Police repression makes a death inNovember 1967and, on the 10th of the month , a student tries to kill the president during a speech in Peshawar . Dhaka then starts a general strike and two protesters are killed by the police inDecember 1967. Lawyers and journalists later joined the movement at 16 . InJanuary 1968, doctors go on strike and the authorities introduce curfews in several major cities. The protest grew between February and March when the officials joined the movement. The repression is also intensifying, with a total of 239 deaths , mainly in East Pakistan. In the latter, the challenge is led by the Awami League and Sheikh Mujibur Rahman who denounce the neglect of the province by the authorities b 5 . Ayub Khan Arrows Bengali Leader for “Conspiracy” c 6 ; in his diary he describes the movement as “communist and terrorist” at 17 .Muhammad Ayub Khan

A figure emerges distinctly to the west: Ayub Khan’s former foreign minister, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto . The latter, however, had clearly incited the president to engage in the 1965 conflict in Kashmir. The rise of leftist movements and widening inequalities allow Ali Bhutto to seduce the masses with a socialist discourse b 11 . Khan Abdul Wali Khan and he are arrested by the police onNovember 13, 1967at 16 . InFebruary 1969Even the army began to distance, especially when the latter refused to fire on protesters in Lahore 18 . Beginning this month, Ayub Khan starts negotiations and the release of opponents, and he accepts the following month some demands of Bhutto and Wali Khan: a constitutional reform granting direct universal suffrage and the establishment of a system parliamentarian . However, cornered by the mistrust of a large part of the power, Ayub Khan resigns theMarch 25, 1969in a speech broadcast on the radio in which he denounced a coup. The power remains fully in the hands of the military, Ayub Khan transmitting the army chief Muhammad Yahya Khan , contrary to what the Constitution provides c 7 . This suspends the latter establishes martial law, banned political parties and increased repression 19 . The movement does not panting, Yahya Khan decides to organize free elections in 1970 that lead to the secession of East Pakistan becoming the Bangladesh after a bloody war.

Biography Of Muhammad Ayub Khan

End of life and death
Ayub Khan’s state of health begins to deteriorate at the end of his presidential duties. He makes a first heart attack inJanuary 1968at the moment when his authority is strongly contested by the population at 16 . After his departure from power, he leaves in a discreet retreat and avoids any public appearance. He escaped a hearing during the judicial inquiry into the military defeat of Pakistan during the 1971 war . TheApril 19, 1974The family of Ayub Khan announced that he died of a heart attack at his residence in Rawalpindi 33 , at the age of 67 years 34 . He is buried onApril 21thin his home village of Rehana, Haripur district . The ceremony is discreet, without funeral of State or military honors.

 

Muhammad Ali Bogra