Our today topic is Biography Of Liaquat Ali Khan.We will talk about Biography Of Liaquat Ali Khan.Nawabzada Liaquat Ali Khan or simply Liaqat Ali Khan is a statesman Pakistani , born on 1 st October 1895 in Karnal in the Raj britannique and murdered on 16 October 1951 in Rawalpindi , in Pakistan . One of the preeminent leaders of the Muslim League , he fights during the British rule over India for the rights of Muslims , then for the creation of a separate sovereign entity for Muslims of the Indian subcontinent. Particularly close to the founder of Pakistan Muhammad Ali Jinnah , he became the first Pakistani Prime Minister after the country’s creation, serving from August 14, 1947 to October 16, 1951. He is sometimes considered the political successor of Jinnah.
Born into a Muslim family of wealthy landowners and politically influential in Karnal , Liaquat Ali Khan lives his youth in an India under British rule . He began his home schooling, then in Indian public institutions in which he then began his studies. He continues these at Oxford University where he graduated in law. Having started his activism in student associations defending the rights of Muslims, he joined the Muslim League in Indiaof which he will be a preeminent member occupying several positions of responsibility. He is a multiple member of the provincial and national legislature, and participates in the UK transition to independence as finance minister.
Biography Of Liaquat Ali Khan
Liaquat Ali Khan is one of the creative artisans of Pakistan , of which he will be the first head of government. During his four years of office, he manages the troubles following the partition of the Indies as well as the massive movements of population. Attempting to extend Pakistan ‘s sovereignty to all of Kashmir , he faces India in the first of three wars between the two countries. At the international level, he is seeking a rapprochement with the United States while developing relations with the Eastern bloc and joining the non-aligned movement. Domestically, it faces socialist and communist oppositions and has tensions with the military hierarchy, foreshadowing the political future of the country.
Family and education
Liaqat Ali Khan accompanied by his wife and children.
Liaqat Ali Khan was born into a family Muslim , originally from the province of Punjab of British India . He was born in Karnal , in the current Indian state of Haryana , the 1 st October 1895 . His father, Nawab Rustam Ali Khan, has several honorary titles, is respected by the British government, and is above all a large landowner whose possessions extend between the Punjab and the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh (now Uttar). Pradesh ). His family was favored by the British government when Liaqat Ali Khan’s grandfather, Nawab Ahmed Ali Khan, supported the British army during the Sepoy rebellion in 1857 .
Before joining the school, Liaqat Ali Khan received a religious education from her mother, Mahmoodah Begum. He then went on to study in the British public system and was admitted to the Muslim University of Aligarh where he studied law and political science. He then obtained a bachelor’s degree in Political Science and a Bachelor of Laws in 1918. He left the following year to the UK and joined the Exeter College, Oxford of the University of Oxford where he obtained a Master of Lawsin 1921, as well as a reward for his achievements. At that time, he was honorary treasurer of a student association named Indian Majlis , which promotes the rights of Indian Muslim students. He followed a training of lawyer in Inner Temple the following year, then began to practice in the country .
In 1918, he married his cousin, Jehangira Begum . In 1932, he remarried with Begum Ra’ana, teacher and figure of the movement for Pakistan . After independence, she advocated for the place of women in the new Pakistani society, and contributed in particular to the creation of the Pakistani army medical corps and the training of women working there.
Biography Of Liaquat Ali Khan
Activism in British India
Liaqat Ali Khan returned to India in 1923 and joined national politics, in opposition to the British government and in order to defend the rights of Indian Muslims. At first, he moved closer to the Indian National Congress of Nehru and therefore supports Indian unity, but he then quickly turns to Muhammad Ali Jinnah by joining the Muslim League the same year. In May 1924, Ali Khan attends the annual league session in Lahore and thus contributes to the implementation of his agenda and political strategy . In 1926, he was widely elected local deputy of the United Provinces, which are an electoral stronghold of the Muslim League. He introduced himself in a rural constituency of Muzaffarnagar district , under an independent label, like the other members of the League. In 1932, he was elected unopposed vice-president of the Legislative Assembly of the province, and founded within it the political group “Democratic Party” . During his years, he strives to promote the ideas of the League in the province and structure activists, including through student associations, and puts in advance the defense of the rights of Muslims against the British government.
Given the growing influence of Ali Khan in the League, he participated in the national convention of Calcutta, then in 1928 he discusses the report Nehru, that the Muslim League will reject, and he participates in 1930 to the first of Three Round Table Conference that brings together the British Government, the Indian National Congress and the League. It ended in failure and Ali Khan left Indian politics to go to England in 1933, as did Jinnah. At the same time, the League sees its influence decline following the departure of many of its parliamentary support .
Movement for Pakistan
Muslim leaders of the Muslim League during the Lahore resolution.
During their exile in the United Kingdom , Ali Khan and his wife keep in touch with Muhammad Ali Jinnah , and try to convince him to resume the political struggle in India by reorganizing the Muslim League , which he finally does in 1934 . On 12 April 1936, at the annual session of the league in Mumbai , Ali Khan became the Honorary Secretary, a position he held until the Partition of India . In 1940, he took the vice-leadership of the parliamentary branch of the league in the Central Legislative Assembly, in order to let Jinnah deal with extra-parliamentary politics. He also holds other positions within his party, as chairman of the central parliamentary office, moderator of the action committee and also director-general of the English-language daily Dawn , founded by Jinnah .
During the year 1940, Liaqat Ali Khan participated in the Lahore resolution , which later led to the establishment of Pakistan . The same year, he was elected unopposed deputy to the Central Legislative Assembly for a Bareli constitution . The following year, the Muslim League adopts in its agenda the resolution of Lahore on proposal of Khan . In the Indian legislative elections of 1945 , Ali Khan won a seat of deputy in the constituency of Meerut . Right in the context of the Movement for Independence of India, the British set up an interim government to make the transition with independence, and it consists of members of the Indian National Congress , the Muslim League and representatives of other minorities. Ali Khan takes the league lead within this firm, and gets the portfolio of finance. At the same time, the British government and Congress accept the idea of an independent country for the Muslims of the Indian subcontinent , paving the way for the creation of Pakistan on August 14, 1947 in territories mostly populated by Muslims .
Biography Of Liaquat Ali Khan
Prime Minister of Pakistan
Accession to power and struggles
Liaquat Ali Khan becomes Prime Minister of Pakistan on the day of the country’s official creation, August 14, 1947. He is appointed to this post by the new Governor General of Pakistan, Muhammad Ali Jinnah , founder of the country and head of the Muslim League . The country then knows a transitional regime pending the drafting of a constitution, during which the country is a dominion attached to the British crown.
Following the chaotic unfolding of the Indian partition , the first Indo-Pakistan War and the beginning of the Baloch Wars , the Prime Minister’s leadership was criticized by various voices, including Communists and Socialists active in the country and the country. military hierarchy. Above all, relations with Jinnah are seriously degraded as he, seriously ill, is living his last days. Witnesses say there is a tense conversation as Jinnah blames the head of government for his ambition and lack of loyalty. . Ali Jinnah finally died on September 11, 1948, barely a year after Pakistan’s independence, and left a hefty legacy for the prime minister to lead a country in crisis. Instead, Ali Khan named Khawaja Nazimuddin , a Bengali from East Pakistan , as Governor-General in place of Jinnah .
The power struggles will then mainly involve the nascent Pakistani military hierarchy, which will oppose Ali Khan’s policy, particularly regarding his government’s diplomatic approach to India and Kashmir , but his rapprochement with the West and the incompetence and alleged corruption of his government. This conflict is mainly unveiled by the “Rawalpindi plot” led by the army chief Akbar Khan with the support of the communist figure Faiz Ahmed Faiz . Revealed by leaks, the plot is defeated by the government of Ali Khan who stops the main suspects and gets the support of
Partition Management (1947)
Main article: Partition of India .
From its first months of existence, the country is confronted with a large population movement on both sides and the border with India. Liaquat Ali Khan’s government will fail to avoid community violence and limit the flow of refugees. Muslim and Hindu communities on the one hand, and local populations and new immigrants on the other, clash violently, leading to riots, killings and mass rapes. The two governments fail to control the situation, in a context of constitution of newly independent country institutions. The Pakistani government also fails to maintain religious minorities, including Hindu and Sikh, despite Jinnah’s wishes, and finds it difficult to integrate Urdu-speaking Muslim immigrants , arriving mainly from the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh .. Similarly, the large number of immigrants coming from India, and settling mainly in the big cities, in particular of the province of Sind , will create community conflicts, the immigrant population representing sometimes half of the population of certain city even becoming a majority, as in Karachi , where communal conflicts still exist today . In contrast, East Pakistan is escaping massive violence, despite large population movements as well. According to the US government, the record of this period amounted to 250 000 deaths and 12 to 24 million displaced .
Biography Of Liaquat Ali Khan
Military Politics and War with India (1947 – 1949)
Main article: First Indo-Pakistan War .
Indian soldiers during the first Indo-Pakistan war.
From the first moments of his government, Liaqat Ali Khan has to face the first Indo-Pakistan War . Tensions erupt around Kashmir , while Maharaja Hari Singh of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir is forced to choose between India and Pakistan . The Pakistani government, which believes that the principality is his right because the majority of its population is Muslim, decides on a military intervention. While British General Frank Messervy refuses to lead the operation, the government replaces him as Chief of the Pakistan Army by Douglas David Graceyand the Prime Minister orders him to intervene in Kashmir to support the tribes opposed to the Maharaja .
Differences then appeared between Prime Minister Ali Khan and Governor-General Muhammad Ali Jinnah , the latter being more in favor of a military solution to “liberate” Kashmir and a confrontation with India, while the leader of the government would have been more in favor of a negotiated solution through the United Nations . A cease-fire finally enter into force on 1 st January 1949 against including the promise of a self-determination referendum under UN supervision. The agreement contributes in particular to alienate a part of the military hierarchy against the government, accused of having abandoned the Kashmiri cause .
At the same time, the military is being called by the government to intervene in the southern province of Balochistan , to force recalcitrant tribal leaders to integrate into Pakistan . The brother of the Prince of Kalat State , Karim Khan, is one of the main protagonists of the revolt. He finally fled to Afghanistan on May 16, 1948 to carry out an armed rebellion against the Pakistani government from the other side of the border, but his request for exile was refused, he was repatriated to Pakistan in September 1948. The State of Kalat will eventually be dissolved in 1955.
Moreover, relations between this first government and the military hierarchy have been problematic, foreshadowing the future of the country. The chief of the army Douglas David Gracey interacts in particular with the prime minister, and the latter replaces him with Muhammad Ayub Khan in January 1951. This maneuver does not, however, prevent the rise of tensions, and part of the military hierarchy partners with the communist and socialist opposition to overthrow the government. The Prime Minister announces on March 9, 1951 that a police operation led to the arrest of the main defendants, including Akbar Khan, the number two of the army, the intellectual Faiz Ahmed Faizas well as fourteen officers of the army. Judged in secret, they will be sentenced to between four and twelve years.
Economic and social policy
Prime Minister Liaqat Ali Khan on the left meets the president of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Soon after independence, the Pakistani economy is underdeveloped and unstructured, suffering from the absence of a banking system, an almost non-existent industry, a poorly developed agriculture and based on a feudal system in the hands rich families with vast lands. On the idea of Finance Minister Malik Ghulam Muhammad , Liaqat Ali Khan leads a policy of economic planning with the help of a five-year plan, but in the framework of a capitalist economy seeking to develop private investment . The first plan is presented July 8, 1948, and in addition to the development of infrastructure of the country,which aims to boost investment through private savings and also seeks to minimize the cost of production . The National Bank of Pakistan, which was established in November 1949, also introduced the banking system and defended the national currency, the Pakistan rupee . However, the five-year plan is dependent on US financial assistance and is still suffering from poor funding and lack of skilled personnel. On the other hand, the country also suffers from the war with India and the military expenditure that it induces, as well as from the monetary war with India., which refuses to recognize the Pakistani currency before February 1951, as well as the total absence of trade between the two countries before 1950 and the total absence of economic convergence between the two countries, the Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru putting for its part, a socialist economy . The plan is not completed after the death of the Prime Minister in October 1951 and is widely considered a failure. The following plan, establishes the period 1955-1960 will also be referred to as the “first” .
Liaqat Ali Khan is trying to develop the country’s education and university system, first by building on the institutions inherited from the British Empire, then by promoting science and technology infrastructures through various scientists he places at senior positions, some of which come from India and to which he attributes nationality. In 1947, he set up the national education program and created the University of Sind, in particular .
Biography Of Liaquat Ali Khan
Liaqat Ali Khan meeting with US President Harry S. Truman in May 1950.
In the context of the beginning of the cold war, Liaquat Ali Khan is courted by both the Soviet Union and the United States . The USSR is the first to invite the Prime Minister to visit the country. That said, while developing a speech close to the Non-Aligned Movement , the government finally accepts an American proposal to move closer to the Western bloc and the Prime Minister pays an official visit to the United States. . Although signaling that the country’s official position will remain neutral, Pakistan is getting US economic aid for development. However, relations deteriorate sharply when the United States asks Pakistan to support the Americans in the Korean War with two divisions of the Pakistani army . Pakistan agrees on condition of unconditional American support for Kashmir , which the United States refuses, anxious to preserve their relations with India . Relations deteriorate further when Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru makes an official visit to the United States , and thenAbadan crisis , when Pakistan refuses to support the United States against Iran . Similarly, the government and the military hierarchy are impatient with the lack of US support for Kashmir , and the government has refused the United States the deployment of a US military base. In retaliation, the Americans have threatened to cut off financial aid to the country.
On the other hand, the country has developed links with various other countries, such as the USSR, China and Iran. Pakistan formally established relations with the Soviet Union in April 1948, and the following month an agreement is announced. In this regard, Liaqat Ali Khan said: “Pakistan can not afford to wait, it has to take its friends where it finds them.” A visit by Ali Khan to Moscow has been mentioned several times, but never took place . In January 1950, Pakistan became one of the first countries to recognize the Chinese communist regime and welcomed its ambassador in September 1951, and the country became a major strategic ally. The alliance would have been considered profitable, given the traditional rivalry between China and India .
On October 16, 1951, Liaqat Ali Khan was shot twice in the chest at a public meeting of the Muslim City League in Rawalpindi . The police then shoot at the murderer and wound him badly. Transferred to the hospital, he receives a blood transfusion but then succumbs to his wounds. Ali Khan is buried in the Mazar-e-Quaid Mausoleum , where Muhammad Ali Jinnah is buried . He received the title of Shaheed-e-Millat (martyrdom of the nation) and the park in which he died was renamed in his name.
The motives of the assassin, who has been identified as Saad Akbar Babrak, have never been clearly elucidated. It is first mentioned as an Afghan nationalist ethnic Pashtun who killed the prime minister for political reasons, hoping eg weaken Pakistan and allow the meeting of Pashtuns in one nation . However, various other sources present Akbar Babrak as a hitman.
Great Leader Liaquat Ali Khan