Muhammad general zia ul haq (born in Jalandhar , British India on August 12 , 1924 and dead the August 17 , 1988in Bahawalpur ) is a Pakistani military and statesman .
Named October 11, 1976 chief of the Pakistani army by President Zulfikar Ali Bhutto , he overthrew the latter in a coup in 1977 . General zia ul haq is then President of the Republic of September 16 , 1978 until his death in 1988 in a plane crash. Often regarded as a dictator, Pakistan’s constitution was suspended for nearly seven of the ten years in power.General zia ul haq is also the instigator of reforms aimed at increasing the scope of Islamic law in the Pakistani legal order.
As head of the Pakistani army, appointed to this position by President Zulfikar Ali Bhutto on October 11, 1976 , he is the instigator of the coup that will overthrow the head of state. Bhutto is then imprisoned, released, and then imprisoned again. He will be sentenced to death on March 18 , 1978 then, after several instances on appeal, hanged the April 4 , 1979. general zia ul haq, officially became president September 16 , 1978, refuses to exercise its right of pardon, despite international calls to this effect, notably from the United States , France and the USSR All these events occurred in a context of political crisis, while the Conservative opposition contested the victory of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto in the 1977 legislative elections and the socialist politics he was leading.
Biography Of General Zia Ul Haq
general zia ul haq played an important role in the Soviet-Afghan conflict , providing military and financial assistance to the Afghans, which was heavily supported by the United States who had promised general zia ul haq territories in the north-west to compensate for the loss of Bangladesh . According to Asif Ali Zardari , the repressive regime of general zia ul haq was thus supported at arm’s length by the Western powers.
He continued Pakistan’s nuclear program in the 1970s, culminating in a successful nuclear test in 1998, reviving the conflict with India over Kashmir, among other things . A diplomatic incident, perhaps related to this program, involving the French diplomat Pol Le Gourrierec took place in June 1979.
Unlike Zulfikar Bhutto, attracted by secularism, general zia ul haq had the will to establish an Islamic State by relying on the mullahs : he banned bank interest rates, introduced the compulsory alms ( zakat ) in the positive law , public punishment, forced women to veil themselves on television, promulgated the blasphemy law in 1986, and so on . The rules of the Muslim criminal law introduced were only slightly applied . general zia ul haq even wanted to go further by trying to reinstate the caliphate , common Muslim authority, which had been abolished on March 3 , 1924by Turkish President Mustapha Kemal . The majority of the ulema, however, opposed his project .
In 1988, when he was accompanied by American diplomats, general zia ul haq’s plane crashed in Pakistan , shortly before landing at a Bahawalpur military base , in circumstances never known. No proof to date has been provided to support the thesis of an assassination sponsored or not by a foreign force.
Biography Of General Zia Ul Haq
Democracy was restored shortly after his death with the election of Benazir Bhutto , daughter of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto .
General Mohammad Zia Ul Haq
PRESIDENT OF PAKISTAN
General zia ul haq was commissioned in 1945 from the Royal Indian Military Academy in Dehra Dun and served with the British armoured forces in Southeast Asia at the end of World War II. After 19 years spent in various staff and command appointments he was made an instructor at the Command and Staff College in Quetta. He successively commanded a regiment, brigade, division, and a corps during the period 1966–72. A major general from 1972, he was president of the military courts that tried several Army and Air Force officers alleged to have plotted against the government of Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto in 1972. Bhutto promoted him to lieutenant general in 1975 and made him chief of Army staff in 1976.
General zia ul haq seized power from Bhutto in a bloodless coup on July 5, 1977, and became chief martial-law administrator while retaining his position as Army chief of staff. He assumed the presidency after Fazal Elahi Chaudhry resigned. Zia tightened his hold on the government after having the charismatic and still-popular Bhutto executed on charges of attempted murder in 1979. Zia suspended political parties in that year, banned labour strikes, imposed strict censorship on the press, and declared martial law in the country (nominally lifted 1985). He responded to the Soviet Union’s invasion of neighbouring Afghanistan in 1979 by embarking on a U.S.-financed military buildup. He also tried to broaden his base of support and worked for the Islamization of Pakistan’s political and cultural life. He died in an airplane crash.